Home-Based Enterprises and Urban Neighbourhood Mobility

International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS)
© 2023 by IJSMS Journal
Volume-6 Issue-3
Year of Publication : 2023
Authors : Nkeiru Hope Ezeadichie
DOI: 10.51386/25815946/ijsms-v6i3p106
MLA Style: Nkeiru Hope Ezeadichie "Home-Based Enterprises and Urban Neighbourhood Mobility" International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS) V6.I3 (2023): 61-72.

APA Style: Nkeiru Hope Ezeadichie, Home-Based Enterprises and Urban Neighbourhood Mobility, International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS), v6(i3), 61-72.
The global expansion of home-based enterprises (HBEs) particularly after the COVID-19 pandemic requires more scholarly investigations due to their effects on residential neighbourhoods. Existing studies on HBEs span from social, economic, political to environmental perspectives. However, the effects of HBEs on neighbourhood mobility is under-researched especially in global South cities, where the informal types are predominant; and affect the mobility of residents. This study, therefore examines the HBEs effects on neighbourhood mobility. The objectives of the study are; to determine the incidence of HBEs, and to ascertain HBEs effects on neighbourhood mobility. Three neighbourhoods were selected through stratified random sampling; Gariki (high density), Ogui New Layout (medium density) and Government Reserved Area-GRA (low density) in Enugu, Nigeria. Mixed method was utilized for data collection through field observation, questionnaire-administration, interview; and analysed using descriptive statistics. The result reveals the incidence of HBEs as; 39.5%, 23.9% and 21.1% for Gariki, Ogui New L/out and GRA, respectively. The HBEs effects on neighbourhood mobility reveal that over 70% of the respondents do not incur any transportation cost to access goods and services at HBE locations. Over 50% indicated that the average time to HBE location is less than 15 minutes. However, over 40% of respondents indicated that HBEs cause increased traffic volume within the neighbourhoods. The study concludes that HBEs clearly have positive effects on neighbourhood mobility, nevertheless, the negative effects require careful consideration in urban planning. The study is significant as it provides data for better analysis and management of neighbourhood transportation system.
Keywords: Home-based enterprise, Mobility, Neighbourhood, Planning, Urban.
[1] Abolade, O., Adigun F. and Akande, D. (2013), “Impacts of Home-Based Enterprises on the Quality of Life of Operators in Ibadan North Local Government, Nigeria.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention 2 (7): 1–7.
[2] Adeokun, C. and Ibem, E. (2016). “Home-based Enterprises: Implications for Housing and Urban Planning in Nigeria.” Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 33 (1): 71–89.
[3] Alemea, G. (2015). “Exploring the Use of Domestic Spaces for Home Based Income Generation: The Case of Wise of Addis-Ketema, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” Master’s Thesis, Addis Ababa University.
[4] Allen Hai Xiao, Geoforum, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2021.04.012
[5] Arimah, B. C. (2001). Nature and Determinants of Linkages between Formal and Informal Sector in Nigeria. African Development Review, 13 (1), 114- 144. doi:10.1111/1467-8268.00033, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8268.00033
[6] Ayadi, O. F. (2008), Structural adjustment, financial sector development and economic prosperity in Nigeria. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, Issue, 15, 2008.
[7] Becker, K. F. (2004), The Informal Economy: Fact Finding Study. Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. (SIDA) http://www.sida.se/ English/ About-us/ Publicationdatabase (Last accessed 4th June 2013).
[8] Buehn, A., and Schneider, F. (2012). Shadow Economies around the World: Novel Insights, Accepted Knowledge, and New Estimates International Tax and Public Finance, 19 (1), 139- 171.
[9] Celia, M. (2010), We are workers too! Organizing home-based workers in the global economy. Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing.
[10] Chen, M., Sebstad, F. and O’Connell, L., (1999), “Counting the Invisible Workforce: The Case of Home-Based Workers.” World Development 27 (3): 603–610.
[11] Cross, C., Mbhele, P., and Zulu, N. (2001). Inside the Invisible Economy: Home-Based Workers in Poor Settlements of the Durban Metropolitan Area. CARDO/CSIR workshop on the impact of home-based enterprises on the social, economic and physical environment. Pretoria. 2001
[12] Daniels, L. (1999). The Role of Small Enterprises in the Household and National Economy in Kenya: A Significant Contribution or a Last Resort? World Development, 27(1), 55–65.
[13] Duminy, J. (2011), Literature Survey: Informality and Planning. African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town, South Africa. http://www.inclusivecities.org/ wp-content/ uploads/ 2012/07/ Duminy- Planning- Lit-Review_ FINAL.pdf.
[14] Earles, W. (2004), Micro and homebased business enterprises and the third sector: Conceptual and methodological developments in identifying and profiling this hidden economy. Paper presented at the ISTR Sixth International Conference, Toronto, Canada. 11–14 July, 2004
[15] Earles, W., Lynn, R., & Swan, D. (2004), Home-based business enterprises: Conceptual and methodological developments. Paper presented at the ASBBS 7th International Conference, Cairns, Queensland. 6–7 August, 2004
[16] Ezeadichie, N. (2012). Home-Based Enterprises in Urban Spaces: An Obligation for Strategic Planning? Berkeley Planning Journal, 25 (1). ucb_crp_bpj_12010. Retrieved from: http://www.escholarship.org/ uc/item/ 8857741x (11th June 2019)
[17] Ezeadichie, N. H., Jiburum U., Onodugo V. A., Onwuneme C. A. and Attama K. (2018); Intergrating Home-Based Enterprises in Urban Planning: A case for Providing Economic Succour for Women of Global South; Berkeley Planning Journal, 30 p. 82-101.
[18] Florida, R. (2004). Cities and the creative class. New York: Routledge.
[19] Gondwe, J. and Ayenagbo, K. (2013), “Negotiating for livelihoods beyond the formal Mzuzu City, Malawi, by the urban poor: Informal settlements as spaces of income generating activities.” International Journal of Human Science 10 (1): 356–375.
[20] Gurstein, P. (1996). Planning for telework home-based employment: Reconsidering the home/work separation. Journal of Planning Education & Research, 15(3), pp. 212-224.
[21] Horn, Z. E., Namsonboon & Tulaphan, (2013). Home-based Workers in Bangkok, Thailand Informal Economy Monitoring Study, July
[22] Hospers, G.-J. (2003). Creative cities: Breeding places in the knowledge economy. Knowledge, Technology and Policy, 16(3), 143–162.
[23] Hospers, G.-J., & van Dalm, R. (2005). How to create a creative city? The viewpoints of Richard Florida and Jane Jacobs. Foresight, 7(4), 8–12.
[24] International Labour Organization-ILO (1972), Income and Equality: A Strategy for Increasing Productive Employment in Kenya. Geneva: International Labour Office.
[25] International Labour Organization-ILO (2002), “Decent Work and the Informal Economy.” International Labour Conference 90th session. Geneva: International Labour Office.
[26] Kazimbaya-Senkwe, Barbara Mwila. (2004). “Home-Based Enterprises in a Period of Economic Restructuring in Zambia” in Reconsidering Informality: Perspectives from Urban Africa, Karen Hansen and Mariken Vaa, Eds. Copenhagen, DE: Nordic Africa Institute.
[27] Lawanson, T. and Olanrewaju, D. (2012), “The Home as Workplace: Investigating Home Based Enterprises in Low Income Settlements of the Lagos Metropolis.” Paper presented at 48th ISOCARP Congress, Russia, September 10–13, 2012.
[28] Louw, E., & De Vries, P. (2002), Working at home: The Dutch property dimension. Planning Practice and Research, 17(1), 17–30.
[29] Mehrotra, S. and Biggeri, M. (2002), “Social protection in the Informal economy: women home based workers.” Innocenti Working Paper 97. UNICEF, Italy.
[30] Napier, M and Liebermann (2006). Report Resource 4, Literature Review on Home-based Entrepreneurs Shisaka Development Management Services (Pty) Ltd in Association with CSIR Built Environment 6 February 2006
[31] Naqeeb, B., Saigol, R. & Azhar, U. (2014). Home-based Workers in Lahore, Pakistan Informal Economy Monitoring Study. August 2014 Published by Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO).
[32] Ogbazi, J. and Ezeadichie, N. (2014), “Participatory Planning: A Case Study of Solid Waste Management Improvement Programme in Enugu, Nigeria.” In Planning and the Case Study Method in Africa: The Planner in Dirty Shoes, edited by James Duminy, Jørgen Andreason, Fred Lerise, Nancy Odendaal, and Vanessa Watson, 155–175. Houndsmill: Palgrave and Macmillan.
[33] Okosun, A. E & Ezeadichie, N. H. (2006). “Towards Sustainable Urban Environment: A case study of Urban Poverty and Land-use Conversion in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria” in Okowole A. et al (eds). The Built Environment: Innovation; Policy and Sustainable Development, Department of Architecture, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Canaan Land, Ota, Nigeria pp. 260-265.
[34] Olayiwole, M. (2018), ‘Street-Trading and its Effects on Traffic Flow: A Study of Igando Bus-Stop in Lagos’. European Journal of Accounting Finance & Business, 8(18), 124 -134
[35] Olufemi, O. A. (2000). “Home-Based Work of Professional Women in Nigeria and South Africa: Its Implications for Development Planning and Policy.” Proceedings of the CARDO International Conference on Housing Work and development: the role of Home-Based Enterprises, held at Newcastle Upon-Tyne, England, April 26-28, 2000.
[36] Prugl, E. & Tinker, I. (1997). Micro-entrepreneurs & home workers: Convergent categories. World Development, 25(9), pp. 1471-1482.
[37] Rust, K. (2007). Housing finance and residential property markets. National Treasury: Training for Township Renewal Initiative (TTRI).
[38] Sinha, S. (2006), Government policies for home-based workers. Labour File, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp 19-22.
[39] Sayers, J. (2009), Home-based businesses in the city. Small Enterprise Research, 2009-2010(17) 165–176.
[40] Sayers, J. (2010), FLAT WHITES: How and why people work in cafés. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations 34(2), 74–86.
[41] Tipple, G. (2005), ‘‘Employment and work conditions in home-based enterprises in four developing countries: do they constitute “decent work?’’ Work, Employment and Society, 19(4), 841-853
[42] Tripathi, T. &. Mishra, N. (2013). Women Home Based Workers across Indian States: Recent Evidences. Journal of Regional Development and Planning 2(1)
[43] United Nations (2014), World Urbanization Prospect: The 2014 Revision. New York: United Nations.
[44] Van Dijk, M.P. (2006), ‘The Role of Informal Flow in Redistributing Economic Growth: The Case of Dar Es Salaam’, Report, World Bank.
[45] Van Gelderen, M., Sayers, J., & Keen, C. (2008), Home-based internet businesses as drivers of diversity. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15(1), 162–177.
[46] Von Broembsen, M. (2007). The legal empowerment of the poor: Informal business. Prepared for the Commission for the Legal Empowerment of the Poor. UNDP. [online]. Available from: http://www.undp.org/ legalempowerment/ reports/ National%20 Consultation%20 Reports/Country%20 Files/22_South%20 Africa/22_3_ Informal_ Business_Rights. pdf.
[47] Vyas, A. and Akhlaq, A. (2012). Women’s Work and Globalisation: A Bibliography (1990–2011). New Delhi: Centre for Women’s Development Studies.
[48] Zenkteler, M., Darchen, S., Mateo-Babiano, I. and Baffour, B., (2019). Home-based work in cities: In search of an appropriate urban planning response. Futures, p.102494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2019.102494