The Evidence of Biochemical Similarities, Molecular Similarities, Modern (Contemporary) Evidence, and Vestigial Organs are Opposite to Darwin’s Theory

International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS)
© 2023 by IJSMS Journal
Volume-6 Issue-6
Year of Publication : 2023
Authors : Md. Abdul Ahad
DOI: 10.51386/25815946/ijsms-v6i6p101
MLA Style: Md. Abdul Ahad "The Evidence of Biochemical Similarities, Molecular Similarities, Modern (Contemporary) Evidence, and Vestigial Organs are Opposite to Darwin’s Theory " International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS) V6.I6 (2023): 1-13.

APA Style: Md. Abdul Ahad, The Evidence of Biochemical Similarities, Molecular Similarities, Modern (Contemporary) Evidence, and Vestigial Organs are Opposite to Darwin’s Theory , International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS), v6(i6), 1-13.
Living organisms are greatly similar at their molecular level, which leads the concept of their common ancestry. But it is not true, as every being is definite at the molecular level of each species. So, according to the current theory, each species is unique in that its base pairs are arranged in different orders and proportions, which vary from all other species. Again, the DNA base-sequence varies as much as between individuals of the same society and also of different societies of human races. Even, each person has a unique “Genetic fingerprint” and DNA molecules which are completely different from one another. So, there are no similarities among different types of species at their molecular levels. Again, there is no evidence that a reproductively isolated species/breed/variety/race evolves either artificially or naturally, which opposes modern (contemporary) evidence. Again, once it is thought that vestigial organs are useless. But today, those are medically regarded as essential ones.
Keywords: Darwin’s theory, contemporary evidence, medically important, molecular, similarities, useless organ.
[1] Ahad, M.A. (2006). Criticisms of OrganicEvolution (Mainly Darwin’s theory). PhD thesis,Jhangir Nagar University,Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
[2] Ahad, M.A. (2011a). Molecular Evolution of New Species without Modern Synthetic Theory (neo-Darwinism). International Journal of Bio-Resource and Stress Managent 2, (2),131-136.
[3] Ahad, M.A. (2011b). Evolution without Lamarck’s Theory and Its Use in the Darwinian Theories of Evolution. International Journal of Bio-Resource and Stress Managent 2 (3),353-358.
[4] Ahad, M. A. (2014). Darwin’s theory is the mixture of Malthus’s theory and Lyell’s theory and Darwin use wrong Lamarck’s theory as well as believe as a mechanism of evolution. American Journal of Life Science, 2 (3): 128-137.
[5] Ahad, M.A. &Ferdous, A.S.M. (2015). Impossible of macroevolution of new species via changing of chromosome number mutation and structural mutation (Invalid chromosomal speciation Theory): Darwin’s Theory and Neo-Darwinian Theory Oppose it. Martinia, 6 (2), 68-74.
[6] Ahad, M.A. (2015a). The direct evidences (paleontology/ fossils) of evolution opposite to Darwin’s theory and even opposite to human evolution (descent man) from the lower animal like chimpanzee. American Journal of Life Science Research, 3(1), 56-76.
[7] Ahad, M.A. (2015b). Artificial selection/hybridization (the main force of evolution) opposite to Darwin’s theory and also opposite to macroevolution through chromosomal aberration/ chromosomal number mutation. Martinia, 6 (2), 53-67.
[8] Ahad, M.A. (2018a). Darwinian classification of plant and animal (taxonomical evidences) opposite to Darwin’s theory International Journal of Entomology Research, 6 (1), 111-115.
[9] Ahad, M.A. (2018b). Embryological evidences opposite to Darwin’s theory: Biogenetic law (Recapitulation theory) and Haeckel’s evolutionary tree is valid or not. International Journal of Entomology Research, 6 (5), 2492-2499.
[10] Ahad, M.A. (2019). Living organisms (even human) evolve to match with the climate or not and geographical distribution (biogeography) opposite to Darwin’s theory or not.International Journal of Botanical Studies,4 (2), 28-34.
[11] Ahad, M. A. (2020a). Seven non-Darwinian theories opposite to evolution. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 8(5): 1212-1220.
[12] Ahad, M.A. (2020b). The survival of the fittest is not Valid: Darwin’s theory of natural selection, the origin of species and the descent of man opposite to evolution. International Journal of Entomology Research,5 (3), 57-64.
[13] Ahad, M. A.2022a. Evolution without Wilson’s Sociobiology: Is Sociobiology a special branch of Entomology that deals with social insect? International Journal of Entomology Research, 7 (12), 161-173.
[14] Ahad, M. A. (2022b). Darwin’s theory (current version), human evolution (Physical anthropology) and population genetics are opposite to Hardy- Weinberg’s Law and Mendel’s Laws. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies,10 (3),40-54.
[15] Ahad, M. A. (2023a).The Practical Model and Evidence of Organic Evolution Opposite to Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection and Sexual Selection (Human Evolution). International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management, 14 (4), 512-522.
[16] Ahad, M. A. (2023b). The Neutral Theory (Theory of Genetic Drift) and the Nearly Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution are Opposite to Evolution. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management. 14 (7), 1016-1027.
[17] Banerjee, G. C. (2000). A Text Book of Animal Husbandry, 8th edn. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.
[18] Behe, M.J. (2006). Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, 2nd edn. Free press, U.S.A,
[19] Bhuya, A. H., & Timm, R. W. (1973). A Text Book of Biology, 2nd edn. Mullick Brothers, Dhaka.
[20] Case, J.F. (1979). Biology, 2nd edn. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York &Collier Macmillan Publishers, London.
[21] Coyne, J. (2010).Why Evolution Is True, Amazone.com.
[22] Darwin, C. (1859). On The Origin of Species. Oxford University Press, London.
[23] Dodson, E.O. (1960).Evolution: Process & Product, east-west student edn. Affiliated East West Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
[24] Dobzhanskey, T. (1955). Evolution, Genetics and Man. Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
[25] Graham, K. (1986). Biology Pensacola. A Beka Book Publication, Florida.
[26] Gould, S. J.,& Eldredge, N. (1977). Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology. 3: 115-151.
[27] Hall, B.K.&Hallgrimsson, B. (2008).Strickberger’s evolution. 4th edn. Sudbury, Massachusetts, Jones and Bartlett.
[28] Ho, Mae-Wane. (1988). On not holding nature still: Evolution by process, not by consequence. In:M.-W. Ho and S.W Fox. (eds.). Evolution process and Metaphores. John Wiley and Sons, New York. pp.117-144.
[29] Ho, Mae-Wane and Fox, S.W.(1988) On not holding nature still: Evolution by process, not by consequence. In: MaeWane, Ho and S.W. Fox. (eds.). Evolution process and Metaphores. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1988, 117-144.
[30] Jonathan, W. (2009).The Myth of Vestigial Organs and Bad Design: Why Darwinism Is False. Evolution News. [https://evolutionnews.org › Culture › Faith & Science].
[31] Johnson, P. (1991). Darwin on Trial. Regnery. Gateway, Washington, D.C.
[32] JHM (Johns Hopkins Medicine). (2023). [https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org › health › how-the-ear]. Last visited 05/04/2023.
[33] Kaskel, A., P. J. Hummer, Jr, & Daniel, P. J.(1992). Biology, On Everyday Experience.Glenceoe division of McGraw-Hill publishing Co., New York.
[34] Krishnaswamy, S. (1971). Biology, an Inquiry into Life. Vol.1. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi, p.215, 224.
[35] Kettlewell, H.B.D. (1959). Darwin’s missing evidence. Scientific American. 200(3),48-53
[36] Khanna, S.S. (1989). Genetics and Evolution, 4th edn. Central Book Depot, Allahabad, India.
[37] LaPointe, D. (1995). Top Evidence against the Theory of Evolution. East Country Line Road Lakewood, New Jersey: Calvary Academy.
[38] Lewin, B. (1994). Genes V. Oxford University Press, New York.
[39] Lirette L.S, Chaiban G, Tolba R, Eissa H. (2014). Coccydynia: an overview of the anatomy, etiology, and treatment of coccyx pain. Ochsner Journal Spring,14(1),84-7. PMID: 24688338; PMCID: PMC3963058.
[40] Mackean, D.G. (1976). Introduction to Biology, new trop. edn. John Murray, London.
[41] McNaughton, I. M. (1973). Synthesis and Sterility of Raphanobrassica. Euphytica,22, 70-88.
[42] McMinn, R.H. M.; P. Gaddum-Rose, Hutching, R. T. & Logam, B.M.(1999). Minn’s Founctional and Clinical Anatomy. Time Mirror International Publishing Limited, New York.
[43] Mader, S.S. (2003). Biology 3rd edn. McGrow-Hill Higher Education, New York.
[45] Mader,S.S. (2000). Human Biology, 7th edn. McGrow-Hill Higher Education, New York.
[46] Mitchell, E. (2011). Vestigial Organ Arguments: Useful or Unnecessary? [https://answersingenesis.org › human-body › vestigial-.]. Last visited 24.03.2023.
[47] Morris, H.M. (1963). The Twilight of Evolution. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids.
[48] Naylor, B.G. (1982).Vestigial organs are evidence of evolution. Evolutionary Theory,6,91-96.
[49] Noland, G. B., & Beaver, W. C.(1975). General Biology, 9th edn. The C.V. Mosby Co., Saint Louis.
[50] NIH(2011).National Institutes of Health (An official website of the United States government).How do the tonsil works? informedHealth.org[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › books › NBK279406].
[51] Peer, J.A. (2015).Critical survey of vestigial structures in the postcranial skeletons of extant mammals.PMID: 26623192,3: e1439.
[52] Prothero, D.R. (2007). Evolution: What the fossils say &why it matters. New York: Columbia University Press.Rastogi, V.B. (1994). Organic Evolution.Kedernath Ramnath, India,
[53] Purves, W. K. & Orians, G. H. (1987). The Science of Biology, 2nd edn. Sinauer Associates Inc. Publishers, Snderland, Massachuetts.
[54] Rastogi, V. B. (1994). Organic Evolution. Kedernath Ramnath, India.
[55] Raven,P.H, Evert, R.F.& Curtis, H. (1980). Biology of Plants,2nd edn. Worth Publishers Inc., New York.
[56] Ritchie, D.D. &Carola RG. (1983). Biology. Addison-Wiley Publishing Co., Inc., California.
[57] Rause, M. (1975). Neo-Darwinism, Theoria to Theory14: 17-25.
[58] Sarkar,A. Saha,A. Roy,S. Pathak, S. & Mandal,S.earch,9(2), AC11–AC15.
[59] Scadding, S.R. (1981). Do vestigial organs provide evidence for evolution? Evolutionary Theory. 5,173-176.
[60] Senter, P., Ambrocio Z., Andrade J.B., Foust, K.K., Gaston J.E., Lewis, R.P., Liniewski, R.M, Ragin, B.A., Robinson KL, &Stanley, S.G. (2015). Vestigial biological structures: a classroom-applicable test of creationist hypotheses. American Biology Teacher, 77,99–106.
[61] Shukla, R.S. &Chandel, P.S.(1988). Cytogenitics, Evolution & Plant Breeding. S. Chand & Co. Ltd, New Delhi.
[62] Singh, B.D. (2000). Plant Breeding, 6th edn. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.
[63] Sinha, U. & Sinha, S. (1997). Cytogenetics, Plant Breeding and Evolution. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
[64] Sinnott, E.D., Dunn, L.C. & Dobzhanskey, T. (1998). Principles of Genetics, 5thedn. Tata-McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
[65] Sinnott, W.E. & Wilson, K.S. (1963). Botany: Principle and Problems, 6th edn. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.
[66] Smith, R.L. (1990). Ecology and Field Biology, 4thedn. Harper Collins Publishers, New York.
[67] Starr, C.&Taggart R. (1989). Biology: the Unity and Diversity of Life, 4thedn. Wadsworth Publishing Inc. Belmont, California.
[68] Swanson, C.P, Merz, T.&Young, W. J. (1990). Cytogenetics. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
[69] Tamarin, R. (1996). Principle of Genetics, 5th edn. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Oxford, England.
[70] Verma P. S. & Agarwal, V.K. (1990). Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution and Ecology, 12th edn.S. Chand and Co., New Delhi.
[71] Verma, P.S.& Agarwal, V.K. (1999). Cell biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution and Ecology, 13th edn. S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
[72] Wald, G. (1963). Phylogeny and ontogeny at the molecular level. In: A.I. Oparin, edn. Evolutionary Biochemistry. Macmillan, New York.
[72] Wallace, R.A. (1990). Biology: The World of Life (5th Ed.). Harper Collins Publishers Inc., New York.
[73] Weisz, P. B. (1968). Elements of Zoology. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.
[74] W.B.E. (1992). The World Book Encyclopaedia, Int. edn. 4, 5.World Book Inc. Smith, Chicago.
[75] WDE, (1980). Wistar destroy Evolution[https://www.scribd.com/document/201353747/Wistar-estroys].Last visited dated 06.11.2023.
[76] Wilson, A.C. and King, M.C. (1975). Evolution at Two Levels in Humans and Chimpanzees. Science, New Series. (188)4184:107-116.
[77] Zillinnsky, F.J. (1974). The development of Triticale. Advance Agronoy,26, 315-348.