Approaches, Strategies and Challenges in Addressing Health Issues

International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS)
© 2024 by IJSMS Journal
Volume-7 Issue-3
Year of Publication : 2024
Authors : Ana Marie E. Hallegado, Wilson F. Tosino, Erly M. Martir
DOI: 10.51386/25815946/ijsms-v7i3p106
MLA Style: Ana Marie E. Hallegado, Wilson F. Tosino, Erly M. Martir "Approaches, Strategies and Challenges in Addressing Health Issues" International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS) V7.I3 (2024): 113-153.

APA Style: Ana Marie E. Hallegado, Wilson F. Tosino, Erly M. Martir, Approaches, Strategies and Challenges in Addressing Health Issues, International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS), v7(i3), 113-153.
This study determined the teachers’ approaches, strategies and challenges in addressing health issues in the Schools Division of Iloilo, Philippines for School Year 2022-2023. The respondents were the 376 randomly chosen public junior High School teachers in the Schools Division of Iloilo. The dependent variables were the teachers’ approaches, strategies and challenges in addressing health issues while the independent variables were age, sex, length of service, position and educational attainment. The data were gathered using survey questionnaire on teachers’ approaches, strategies and challenges in addressing health issues devised by the researcher, duly validated and tested for reliability. The descriptive research design was employed in this study and the statistical tools used were frequency, percentage, rank, chi-square and Phi-Cramer’s V. Findings revealed that the teachers in the Schools Division of Iloilo, mostly employed the approaches like prioritization of tasks and creation of schedule to manage workload effectively, practice of positive affirmation and focusing on the positive aspects of their jobs; employed strategies like establishment of boundaries to protect their health, maintain a healthy work-life balance and work in a supportive and positive environment and were challenged by limited opportunities for health education, not giving priority to health concerns in the educational setting and teachers experiencing burn-out or emotional exhaustion as a result of the demands of the teaching profession in addressing health issues; there were significant differences in the teachers’ approaches and strategies in addressing health issues when they were classified according to age, sex, education attainment and length of service but not when they were classified according to position; the teachers encountered varying challenges in addressing health issues; there were significant relationships among approaches, strategies and challenges.
Keywords: Approaches, Challenges, Strategies, Health Issues.
[1] American Federation of Teachers. (2021). Health resources for educators.
[2] American Psychiatric Association. (2018). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Author.
[3] Aloe, A. M., Amo, L. C., & Shanahan, M. E. (2016). Classroom management self-efficacy and burnout: A multivariate meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 28(4), 1013-1038.
[4] Andal, A. & Baron, D. (2019). Depression and anxiety among Filipinos: A review of literature. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 7(2), 64-70.
[5] Brown, A. (2020). A Comprehensive Approach to Teacher Well-being: Strategies and Implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(2), 67-82.
[6] Burke, R. J., & Richardsen, A. M. (2016). Occupational stress and well-being among teachers in Norway and Canada. International Journal of Stress Management, 23(3), 321-334.
[7] Burnette, J. L., & Finkel, E. J. (2018). Buffering against weight gain following dieting setbacks: An implicit theory intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50(3), 381–388.
[8] Chu, M. W., Downing, K. L., & Wang, R. C. (2020). Faculty engagement in professional development: A motivational perspective. Studies in Higher Education, 45(1), 149-163.
[9] Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., & Gardner, M. (2017). Effective teacher professional development. Learning Policy Institute.
[10] Dubois, J., Gagnon, L., Desrosiers, J., & Genest, C. (2019). The effectiveness of art therapy in promoting mental well-being among adults with psychiatric disorders. *Journal of Art Therapy*, 36(2), 123-135.
[11] Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2018). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939–944.
[12] Education Support. (2020). Health and Well-being in Schools: An Evaluation of an Intervention Model. London.
[13] Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Morris, A. S. (2019). Prosocial development. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, 3, 1–44.
[14] Flook, L., Goldberg, S. B., Pinger, L., Bonus, K., & Davidson, R. J. (2018). Mindfulness for teachers: A pilot study to assess effects on stress, burnout, and teaching efficacy. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7(3), 182-195.
[15] Garcia, L. (2021). Mindfulness-Based Approaches to Reduce Teacher Stress and Improve Mental Health. Mindfulness in Education, 28(1), 45-62.
[16] Goldhaber, D., & Hansen, M. (2018). Is it just a bad class? Assessing the long-term stability of estimated teacher performance. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 40(1), 4-26.
[17] Grant, S., Guthrie, J., & Seddon, T. (2019). Resilience and well-being in the teaching profession: a critical review of the literature. Cambridge Journal of Education, 49(3), 291-303.
[18] Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2018). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 46(5), 681-702.
[19] Hansson, M., Chotai, J., Nordstöm, A., & Bodlund, O. (2019). Comparison of two self-rating scales to detect depression: HADS and PHQ-9. British Journal of General Practice, 59(566), e283-e288. DOI: 10.3399/bjgp09X454070
[20] Hyseni Duraku, Z., & Hoxha, L. (2021). Teachers’ strategies and practices to support students’ mental health: A scoping review. Journal of School Nursing, 37(1), 49-57. doi: 10.1177/1059840520966425
[21] Ingersoll, R., & Perda, D. (2018). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. In Handbook of Research on Teacher Education and Professional Development (pp. 438-454). IGI Global.
[22] Johnson, L., Smith, A., & Williams, T. (2022). An Integrated Intervention Program for Enhancing Teacher Mental Health: A Literature Review. Journal of Educational Psychology, 48(3), 123-145.
[23] Johnson, M. (2018). Exploring Resilience Training as a Mental Health Intervention for Educators. School Psychology Quarterly, 35(4), 321-335.
[24] Jones, A., Smith, B., & Brown, C. (2021). Telehealth interventions for addressing mental health issues in rural communities. *Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare*, 45(3), 210-225.
[25] Laranang-Mutya, C., Atayde, M., & Corpuz, J. (2020). Building a culturally responsive mental health system in the Philippines: A qualitative study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(22), 8587.
[26] Lawson, G. M., Goodluck, K., & Brossart, D. F. (2018). Trauma-informed classrooms: theory, research, and practice. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 6(2), 78-88.
[27] Kim, J. H., Lee, J., & Lee, S. M. (2018). The effects of a mental health intervention based on self-efficacy theory for Korean teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 60, 137-146.
[28] Li, M., Xie, X., Lu, L., Wang, X., & Wang, S. (2021). Predicting the mental health of primary and secondary school teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic using the conservation of resources theory. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 650138.
[29] Liu, S., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Chen, Y. (2018). Teachers' burnout and coping strategies in the information age. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 56(7), 1077-1095.
[30] Morris, T., & Adams, J. (2019). An exploration of teacher well-being: A review of the literature. Educational Review, 71(3), 396-413.
[31] Mujtaba, B. G., & Cavico, F. J. (2019). The impact of wellness programs on employee morale. Journal of Applied Business Research, 29(5), 1495-1502. DOI: 10.19030/jabr.v29i5.8025
[32] Patel, R. (2017). Building a Supportive School Culture: Strategies for Enhancing Teacher Mental Health. Educational Leadership, 15(3), 89-104.
[33] Sabaghian, Z., Ghanbari, S., & Rostami, Z. (2021). Job satisfaction, burnout, and perceived social support among Iranian EFL teachers. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 40(2), 246-261a
[34] Sassler, S., & Glass, J. (2018). The changing landscape of employment and family life. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 10(2), 390-409.
[35] Schneiderman, N., Ironson, G., & Siegel, S. D. (2018). Stress and health: Psychological, behavioral, and biological determinants. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 607-628. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.144141
[36] Singh, K., & Sharma, D. (2020). Mental health of teachers: A review. Mental Health & Prevention, 19, 200188. doi: 10.1016/j.mhp.2020.200188 Child Mind Institute. (n.d.).
[37] Smith, E., & Johnson, R. (2021). Challenges in Addressing Mental Health Issues Among Teachers: A Literature Review. Journal of Educational Psychology, 55(2), 78-95.
[38] Smith, J. (2019). Mental Health Promotion and Intervention Strategies for Teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 42(3), 123-145.
[39] Smith, T. M., & Ingersoll, R. M. (2018). What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover? American Educational Research Journal, 55(1), 159-196.
[40] Spegman, A., & Feinberg, T. (2018). The role of wellness programs in employee health and productivity. Health Affairs Blog.
[41] Sun, J., Chen, L., Zhang, J., & Yang, Y. (2019). Job satisfaction and basic psychological needs fulfillment: The moderating role of perceived social support among Chinese kindergarten teachers. International Journal Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(19), 3577.
[42] Van Horn, M. L., Reinke, W. M., & Herman, K. C. (2020). Teachers' implementation of social-emotional learning: Supporting factors and barriers across grade levels. School Mental Health, 12(4), 869-882.
[43] Wang, H., & Li, X. (2018). Evaluating the impact of a school-based mental health program on anxiety and depressive symptoms among adolescents in China. *Journal of School Psychology*, 28(4), 345-360.
[44] Wei, Y., Wen, L., & Zhang, Y. (2019). How does autonomy support affect teacher well-being? A mediation model. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1159.
[45] World Health Organization. (2019). Mental Health Promotion, Prevention, and Early Intervention: A Policy Implication Report. Geneva.
[46] World Health Organization. (2020). Mental health in the workplace.
[47] World Health Organization. (2019). WHO-AIMS report on mental health system in the Philippines. WHO Regioal Office for the Western Pacific.
[48] Yin, H., Cheah, J. H., & Soon, Y. Q. (2020). The job demands-resources model and work engagement among secondary school teachers in Malaysia. Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education, 35, 67-81.