Teachers’ Reading Comprehension Strategies, Approaches and Challenges

International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS)
© 2024 by IJSMS Journal
Volume-7 Issue-3
Year of Publication : 2024
Authors : Lester Loiue L. De Ocampo, Wilson F. Tosino, Erly M. Martir
DOI: 10.51386/25815946/ijsms-v7i3p107
MLA Style: Lester Loiue L. De Ocampo, Wilson F. Tosino, Erly M. Martir "Teachers’ Reading Comprehension Strategies, Approaches and Challenges" International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS) V7.I3 (2024): 154-210.

APA Style: Lester Loiue L. De Ocampo, Wilson F. Tosino, Erly M. Martir, Teachers’ Reading Comprehension Strategies, Approaches and Challenges, International Journal of Science and Management Studies (IJSMS), v7(i3), 154-210.
This study determined the reading comprehension strategies, approaches and challenges faced by teachers in the Schools Division of Iloilo, Philippines for School Year 2023-2024. The respondents were the 287 randomly selected through fishbowl technique public junior high school English teachers in the Schools Division of Iloilo. The dependent variables were the teachers’ reading comprehension strategies, approaches and challenges while the independent variables were position, educational attainment, congressional district, years of service and number of trainings attended. The data were gathered using questionnaire on reading comprehension strategies, approaches and challenges devised by the researcher duly validated and reliability tested. The descriptive research design was employed in this study and the statistical tools used were frequency, percentage, rank, chi-square and Phi-Cramer’s V. Findings revealed that in reading comprehension, the teachers mostly employed strategies like: making sense of a text by relating to the learners’ past experience, focusing learners’ attention to what they were reading to fully engage them in the material, and setting the purpose of reading to provide focus for the learners; providing feedback during reading that targets text comprehension, involving learners in real-life situations and encouraging learners to focus on learning to interpret specific words as their mostly used approaches; and mostly challenged by: insufficient foundation in the lower grades on comprehension instruction, inadequate supply of teaching supplementary materials, and focusing on low-achieving learners rather than the high achieving ones; there were no significant differences in the teachers’ reading comprehension strategies, approaches and challenges encountered when they were classified according to position, educational attainment, congressional district, years of service and number of trainings attended; there were significant relationships among strategies and approaches, strategies and challenges but not between challenges and approaches.
Keywords: Reading Comprehension Strategies, Approaches, Challenges.
[1] Abbas, K.D. A. (2021). Factors Influencing Students Reading Comprehension Difficulties Amidst the Use of Modular Distance Learning Approach in Mindanao State University Sulu – Senior High School. Open Access Indonesia Journal of Social Sciences, 4 (6), 581-602. https://doi.org/10.37275/oaijss.v4i2.78. Retrieved from https://journalsocialsciences.com/ index.php/ oaijss/article/view/78
[2] Admin. (2023). How to Use Slovin’s Formula (with Examples). All Things Statistics. Retrieved from https://allthingsstatistics.com/ miscellaneous/ slovins-formula/
[3] Ali, A., & Razali, A. B. (2019). A Review of Studies on Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategies in Teaching Reading Comprehension for ESL/EFL Learners. English Language Teaching, 12(6). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1215830
[4] Almutairi, N. F. (2018). "Effective Reading Strategies for Increasing the ReadingComprehension Level of Third-Grade Students with Learning Disabilities.” Dissertations. 3247. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/ dissertations/3247
[5] Andrés, I. C. (2020). Enhancing reading comprehension through an intensive reading approach. HOW, 27(1), 69–82.
[6] Anggraini, T. (2022). A Teaching Method: Reading Approach. Blog at WordPress.com. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/2p88u2sv
[7] A’yun, Q. & Yunus, M. (2018). The Efficacy Of Reciprocal Teaching Method In Teaching Reading Comprehension To Efl Students. Elt Echo: The Journal of English Language Teaching in Foreign Language Context. 2. 134. 10.24235/eltecho.v2i2.2174.
[8] Banditvilai, C. (2020). The Effectiveness of Reading Strategies on Reading Comprehension. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 10(2), 46–50. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijssh.2020.v10.1012
[9] Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
[10] Barberos, M. T., Gozalo, A., & Padayogdog, E. (2019, October 7). The effect of the teacher’s teaching style on students’ motivation. NYU Steinhardt. http://tinyurl.com/ycyrzbun
[11] Bhat, A. (2023, November 24). Descriptive correlational: Descriptive vs correlational research. QuestionPro. Retrieved from https://www.questionpro.com/ blog/descriptive- research-vs- correlational- research/
[12] Bon, A.B., Jr. (2019). Small Group Study Approach in Teaching Filipino Novels. Ascendens Asia Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Abstracts, 3 (2H). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ycy9ufnv
[13] Bongabong, L. (2022, January 26). Pampering descriptive-correlational research design. Medium. https://medium.com/ @bongabonglester867/ pampering- descriptive- correlational -research-design -a9b9e98f1a28
[14] Bottom-Up Approach to Reading Instruction. (2021). Retrieved from https://study.com/ academy/lesson/ bottom-up- approach-to -reading- instruction.html.
[15] Bouslog, M. (2022). Effective teaching strategies used in today’s classrooms. Graduate Programs for Educators. Retrieved from https://www.graduateprogram.org/ 2019/08/ teaching- strategies- used-in- todays- classroom/
[16] Brevik, L.M. (2019). Explicit reading strategy instruction or daily use of strategies? Studying the teaching of reading comprehension through naturalistic classroom observation in English L2. Read Writ 32, 2281–2310. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-019-09951-w. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11145-019-09951-w
[17] Bryan, L.M. (2022). Teachers’ Lived Experiences Using Reading Strategies to Prepare For High-Stakes Exams in the Elementary, Middle, and High School Science Classroom: A Phenomenological Approach. Liberty University. Retrieved from https://tinyurl.com/527pu9d7
[18] Bullen, P.B. (2023). How to choose a sample size (for the statistically challenged). Tools4dev. Retrieved from https://tools4dev.org/ resources/how- to-choose- a-sample-size/
[19] Bustamante, R. & Shofiya, A. (2021). Teaching Methods and Strategies Used by English Teachers of San Juan, Batangas, Philippines to Increase the Reading Comprehension Skills of the 21st Century Learners. Academia Edu. Retrieved from https://tinyurl.com/mrxby7ju
[20] Cambridge Dictionary. (2018). Challenge. CHALLENGE | definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/ us/dictionary/ english/challenge
[21] Cutting, L. E., & Scarborough, H. S. (2006). Prediction of reading comprehension: Relative contributions of word recognition, language proficiency, and other cognitive skills can depend on how comprehension is measured. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10, 277-299.
[22] DaCosta, P. T., & Gutierrez, Y. H. (2019, November 30). Level of reading comprehension of Dominican EFL College students. Online Submission. https://eric.ed.gov/ ?q=Level2Bof 2BReading2B Comprehension2 Bof2BDominican2 BEFL&id=ED602358
[23] Deluao, C.J., Bernal, D.J., Padillo, J.B., & Lim, R. (2022). Improving The Reading Comprehension of Grade 8 Learners Using 4rs (Read, Retell, React, Reflect) Strategy. International Journal of Humanities, Art and Social Studies (IJHAS), 7, (1-2). Retrieved from https://tinyurl.com/2te4pwuw
[24] DepEd Memorandum No. 173, s. (2019). Bawat Bata Bumabasa Initiative
[25] Desta, M.A. (2020). An Investigation into Teachers Practices of Teaching Early Reading and Practical problems in Its Implementation. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 5 (1). Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1281503.pdf
[26] Devi, B., Lepcha, N, and Basnet, S. (2023). Application Of Correlational Research Design In Nursing And Medical Research. Xi'an Shiyou Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban)/Journal of Xi'an Shiyou University. 65. 60-69. 10.17605/OSF.IO/YRZ68. Retrieved from Https://Www.Researchgate.Net/ Publication/ 368958213_ APPLICATION_OF _Correlational_ Research_Design _In_Nursing_ And_Medical_ Research
[27] Dugasa, G., Olana, T., & Ali, S. (2022). Effects of Explicit Reading Strategy Instruction on Grade 9 Students’ Achievement in Reading Comprehension. Education Research International, vol. 2022, Article ID 7872840, 13 pages, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/7872840. Retrieved from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2022/7872840/
[28] Elleman, A. M., & Oslund, E. L. (2019). Reading Comprehension Research: Implications for Practice and Policy. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6(1), 3–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2372732218816339. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/ doi/full/10.1177/ 2372732218816339
[29] Encinares, M.E. & Manga, A. (2022). Reading Comprehension Strategies Employed by English Teachers During the Covid-19 Pandemic. United International Journal for Research & Technology (UIJRT), 3 (8), pp.155-167. Retrieved from https://uijrt.com/articles/v3/i8/UIJRTV3I80021.pdf
[30] Essel, H. B., Vlachopoulos, D., Tachie-Menson, A., Nunoo, F. K. N., & Johnson, E. E. (2022, April 4). Nomophobia Among Preservice Teachers: A Descriptive Correlational Study At Ghanaian Colleges Of Education. Springerlink. Https://Link.Springer.Com/ Article/10.1007 /S10639-022-11023 -6#Citeas
[31] Evaluate Schema Theory. (2023). Ibguides. Retrieved January 13, 2023, From Https://Ibguides.Com/ Psychology/ Notes/Evaluate- Schema-Theory- With-Reference -To-Research -Studies/
[32] Garside, T. (2021, August 12). Top-Down And Bottom-Up Approaches To Language - What Is The Difference?. Language Point. Https://Www.Languagepointtraining.Com/ Post/Top-Down- And-Bottom- Up-Approaches- To-Language- What-Is- The-Difference
[33] Gustia, Dian (2018) Teaching And Learning Reading Comprehension Through Question-Answer-Relationship (Qar) Strategy To The Second Semester Of Eighth Grade Students Of Mts Assalam Tanjung Sari Lampung Selatan In The Academic Year Of 2017/2018. Undergraduate Thesis, Uin Raden Intan Lampung.
[34] Haq, Z.-U., Khurram, B. A., & Bangash, A. K. (2019). Development Of Reading Skill Through Activity-Based Learning At Grade-Vi In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Bulletin Of Education And Research, 41(1), 85–104.
[35] Hawkins, M., Elsworth, G.R., Nolte, S., & Osborne, R.H. Validity Arguments For Patient-Reported Outcomes: Justifying The Intended Interpretation And Use Of Data. J Patient Rep Outcomes 5, 64 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41687-021-00332-y. https://jpro.springeropen.com/ articles/10.1186/ s41687-021-00332-y#citeas
[36] Goddiess, S. (2023). What are reading comprehension skills? (with examples). Zippia. Retrieved from https://www.zippia.com/ advice/reading- comprehension/
[37] K12 Reader Reading Instruction Resources. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.k12reader.com/ what-isreading- comprehension/
[38] Kelly, M. (2020). 10 Strategies to Increase Reading Comprehension. Retrieved from https://tinyurl.com/3vaz8x3v
[39] Lantolf, J.P. (2000). Introducing sociocultural theory. In Lantolf, J.P (ed). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford University Press: Oxford
[40] Ligudon, J.P. & Ildefonso, L.D. (2022). Reading Strategies Employed By Senior High School English Teachers In The Philippines. Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 3 (2), pp. 93-106, doi:10.55197/qjssh.v3i2.134. Retrieved from https://www.neliti.com/ publications/ 525197/reading- strategies-employed- by-senior-high- school-english -teachers-in- the-philip#cite
[41] Lu, H. (2022). Challenges teachers face in teaching reading among elementary pupils. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 11 (16). 10.5861/ijrse.2022.354. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/ 365202656_Challenges _teachers_face_in _teaching_reading _among_elementary _pupils
[42] Mariecarrier. (2023, April 10). The impact of reading comprehension on learning. EWU. Retrieved from https://tinyurl.com/4vehnabn
[43] Mazzye, D. L., Duffy, M. A., and Lamb, R. L. (2023). Teacher candidate self-efficacy and ability to teach literacy: A comparison of residency and traditional teacher preparation models. Journal of Global Education and Research, 7(2), 146-165. https://www.doi.org/10.5038/2577-509X.7.2.1230
[44] Mcleod, S. (2023). Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from https://tinyurl.com/2yse2xhj
[45] MISDA. (2021). The Implementation of Interactive Approach in Teaching Reading at the Eighth Grade Students of SMPN 8 Palopo. Doctoral thesis, State Institute for Islamic Studies of Palopo. Retrieved from http://repository.iainpalopo.ac.id/ 3750/1/ Misda2028BIG29.pdf
[46] Moswane, A.P. (2019). Teachers’ Challenges in Teaching Reading to English First Additional Language Learners: A Case Study of Seshego High Schools. University of Limpopo. Retrieved from https://tinyurl.com/ 5n75h83f
[47] Nanah, E. Y., Ekpo, S. S., Inyon, A. U. and Koroye, T. (2018). Challenges of Teaching Reading Skills and Pupils’ Reading Effectiveness in Public Primary Schools in Ekeremor Local Government Area, Bayelsa State. Equatorial Journal of Education and Curriculum Studies, 3 (1): 15 – 22. Retrieved from https://tinyurl.com/29mzas53
[48] Navarra, E.M. (2020). Whole School Approach: It’s Effect on the Reading and Writing Skills of Grade 7 Students of San Vicente National High School, Philippines. SMCC Higher Education Research Journal (Teacher Education Journal), 2 (1). Retrieved from https://ejournals.ph/ article.php?id=15566
[49] Navarrete, J.C. (2019). Reading Comprehension: Theories and Strategies Toward an Effective Reading Instruction. Journal of Education and Practice, 10 (13). Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/234642626.pdf
[50] Nguyen, T. L. P. (2022). Teachers’ Strategies in Teaching Reading Comprehension. International Journal of Language Instruction, 1(1), 19–28. https://doi.org/10.54855/ijli.22113
[51] Nugroho, T., Bharati, D.A.L., & Hartono, R. (2019): English teachers’ perception on strategies in teaching reading comprehension to motivate the students. – English Education Journal 9(1): 56-61
[52] Oczkus, L. (2018). Reciprocal teaching at work: Powerful strategies and lessons for improving Reading Comprehension, 3rd Edition. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/ publications/books/ 118045/chapters/ TheFab-Four@- Reciprocal- Teaching- Strategies.aspx
[53] Oseña-Paez, D. (2022). Why 9 out of 10 Filipino children can't read. The Manila Times. Retrieved from https://www.manilatimes.net/ 2022/08/10/ opinion/columns/ why-9-out-of-10 -filipino- children- cant-read/1854046
[54] Palincsar, A.S. & Brown, A.L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehensionfostering & comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition & Instruction, 1(2), 117-172.
[55] Pardede, P. (2008). A Review on Reading Theories and its Implication to the Teaching of Reading. ResearchGate. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/ 321228081_A_Review _on_Reading_Theories _and_its_Implication _to_the_Teaching _of_Reading
[56] Piaget, J. (1967). Six Psychological Studies. New York: Random House.
[57] Power, B. (2022). What Are the Seven Reading Comprehension Strategies?. Choice Literacy. Retrieved from https://choiceliteracy.com/ article/what-are -the-seven- reading- comprehension -strategies/
[58] Pressley, M., Johnson, C.J., Symons, S., McGoldrick, J.A., & Kurita, J.A. (1989). Strategies that improve children’s memory and comprehension of text. Elementary School Journal, 90, 3-32.
[59] Reyes, C., Valmorida, F.M., & Tantog, A.J., Alayon, M., Telos, J. & Cabalog, A. (2023). Teachers' Strategies, Challenges and Coping Mechanisms in Helping Struggling Readers during the Pandemic. International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) ISSN: 2643-9670 Vol. 7 Issue 2, February - 2023, Pages: 296-304 www.ijeais.org/ijamr 296 . International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research , 7 (2), 296–297.
[60] San Juan, R. (2019, December 3). Philippines lowest in reading comprehension among 79 countries. Philstar, pp. 1–1. Retrieved October 16, 2023, from https://www.philstar.com/ headlines/2019/ 12/03/1974002/ philippines-lowest- reading-comprehension -among-79- countries.
[61] Sembiring, L. T. A. B., Rukmini, D., Mujiyanto, J., and Yuliasri, I. (2018). The Impact of Comprehension Instruction on Students’ Reading Comprehension with Different Ability Grouping and Self-Efficacy. TESOL International Journal, 13 (4). https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1244117
[62] Solikhah, I. (2018). Insufficient Preparation of Teaching Reading: What Should Teacher Challenge?. IJOTL-TL (2018), 3(3): 71-84. DOI: 10.30957/ijolt-tl.v3i3.499.
[63] Suárez N., Jiménez J.E., and Sánchez C.R. (2020). Teaching Reading: A Case Study Through Mixed Methods. Front. Psychol. 11:1083. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01083. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/ articles/10.3389/ fpsyg.2020.01083/full
[64] Sun, Y., Wang, J., Dong, Y., Zheng, H., Yang, J., Zhao, Y., and Dong, W. (2021). The Relationship Between Reading Strategy and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.635289
[65] Suson, R., Baratbate, C., Anoos, W., Ermac, E., Aranas, A.G., Malabago, N., Galamiton, N., and Capuyan, D. (2020). Differentiated Instruction for Basic Reading Comprehension in Philippine Settings. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8 (9), 3814 - 3824. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.080904. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/ 344965850_Basic_ Reading_ Comprehension_in _Philippine _Settings
[66] Tavera and Casinillo. (2020). Knowledge Acquisition Practices and Reading Comprehension Skills of the Learners in Hilongos South District, Leyte Division, Philippines. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/ scholar?hl=en&as_ sdt=02C5&q= tavera+and+ casinillo+ 2020&btn G=
[67] Texas Education Agency. (2023). What Is Effective Comprehension Instruction?. Reading Rockets. Retrieved from https://www.readingrockets.org/ topics/comprehension/ articles/ what-effective -comprehension- instruction#:~: text=Effective20 comprehension 20instruction 20is20instruction, they20understand 20what20they20read.
[68] The Impact of Reading Comprehension on Learning. Eastern Washington University. (2022, December 28). https://online.ewu.edu/ degrees/education /med/reading- literacy/ reading- comprehension- on-learning/